The M68's reflexive sight allows the soldier to fire the weapon with his cheek at a comfortable position; however, the soldier must zero with the same cheek position he will fire with because the parallax free is only effective beyond 50 meters. The preferred method of aiming using the M68 is to keep both eyes open, which allows a much greater field of view and makes scanning for targets much easier.
However, getting accustomed to the two-eyes-open method takes practice. The soldier must keep the rifle and M68 in a vertical alignment each time he fires. NOTE: The aiming method used to zero must also be used to engage targets. When using the M68, the weapon must not be canted during aiming or firing. Starting with a securely installed and live-fire zeroed BIS, mount the reflex sight to the front of the receiver rail or to the top RAS as preferred. Adjust windage and elevation on the reflex sight until the center of the aiming dot is at the tip of the front sight post when viewed through the BIS while assuming a normal firing position.
When zeroing the M68, CCO at 25 meters, a designated impact zone must be identified on the meter zero target. This is now the point of impact. From this point, make 4x4 squared box around the point of impact. This box is now the offset and is the designated point of impact for the M Other procedures are the same as standard iron sight procedures.
At ranges of 50 meters and beyond, the effects of parallax are minimal.
However, at ranges of 50 meters and closer, parallax exists and the firer must ensure that the red dot is centered while zeroing. The aiming method two eyes open or one eye open used to zero must be used to engage targets. Target detection procedures for the M68 are the same as with standard iron sights.
The procedures are the same as standard iron sight procedures. IR light is received through the telescope, detected by an IR sensor, converted to digital data, processed, and displayed for the user. The TWS is a thermal sight and does not require the use of night vision devices. The course of fire for the TWS is the same scenario as the day qualification tables with the same requirements for standards of fire for current day standards.
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Qualification standards are the same for day and night. The fundamentals of BRM change as follows:. This fundamental slightly changes due to the height of the sight. Soldiers must adjust their body position so they can properly look through the sight. In most cases, the cheek-to-stock weld no longer exists. To properly aim with the TWS, soldiers must ensure that the correct reticle is selected in the sight. This fundamental is not affected by night firing conditions using the TWS. This fundamental of marksmanship does not change during night firing.
Refer to TM , 31 Oct 00 for target preparation.
With night vision devices the field of view is much smaller, scanning becomes much more deliberate, and, with the TWS, camouflage becomes less of a factor. Even though night vision devices greatly enhance the soldier's ability to acquire a target at night, increased awareness of target detection must be trained to allow the solider to key in on the visual cues of infrared imagery. The TWS is a large device; therefore, selecting a position that allows for good fields of view but at the same time does not silhouette the soldier and his equipment might be a challenge.
Since the TWS detects thermal energy heat emitted from an object, a position near an object emitting a vast amount of thermal energy for example, a vehicle with the engine running, a fire, or so on may affect the soldier's ability to acquire a target. With earlier versions of the TWS, scanning too fast causes a stuttering on the screen, which causes the soldier to miss or overlook a target. With these versions scanning must be done slowly in order to maintain a good thermal image on the screen. With the newer version, this stuttering is not as obvious.
One advantage the TWS heavy and medium has over other night vision devices is that it has two fields of view-wide and narrow. Each field of view has its own advantages and disadvantages. The narrow field of view increases magnification but decreases the field of view. The wide field of view decreases magnification but increases the field of view. The soldier chooses which field of view to use to scan and engage targets. While scanning the sector and or lane with the TWS, the soldier should be aware of thermal cues that allow him to detect and identify targets.
The engine compartment, exhaust, and tires of a vehicle that has been moving are all examples of thermal cues. Adjusting the brightness, contrast, and polarity helps enhance the thermal cues of a target, allowing for quicker detection and identification. Thermal cues become much more obvious on a moving object than on an object standing still. A good example is the tire on a vehicle.
With the vehicle not moving, the tires are cold. On a moving vehicle, the friction between the road and the tires causes the tires to heat up and become prominent when observed through the TWS. The same is true with the human body-a person moving generates more heat than someone standing still. Probably the biggest advantage the TWS provides is its ability to negate camouflage.
The TWS gives the soldier the ability to see through camouflage, such as paint, foliage, and camouflage netting, thereby increasing both day and night target-detecting abilities. Practice qualification with the TWS is the same as day practice qualification with iron sights. Dry fire is done to allow the soldiers to make adjustments to the TWS. Every other firing lane should be used so that the soldier engages only the targets in his lane.
Record qualification with the TWS is the same as day record qualification with iron sights.
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Record qualification with the TWS can be done day and or night. Regardless of the qualification, the standard day record fire for the iron sights will be used. The standards for qualification with the TWS, either day or night, are 23 out of During practice qualification and qualification, it is the soldiers preference on polarity and field of view. The infrared aiming lasers complete the transition from day optics to night optics. Their effectiveness is limited by the capability of the image-intensifying I2 sight with which they are used.
Figure shows the current training program for these lasers. The night initial training strategy is used for soldiers who have little or no previous experience with night vision goggles, or for units beginning a night-training program. The night sustainment training strategy is for soldiers who are familiar with night vision goggles, and for units that have already implemented a night-training program.
However units should always review the night initial training strategy prior to sustainment training. Although the same four fundamentals of marksmanship are used for night firing, adjustments must be made to accommodate the night vision devices.
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The firer's natural tendency is to attempt to acquire a good cheek-to-stock weld position and align the iron sights. The gunner must realize that a good cheek-to-stock weld is not possible with NVGs mounted on his head. The firer should ensure that the butt of the weapon is firmly pulled into the pocket of the shoulder to prevent the laser from wobbling.
When the soldier is ready to fire, the elbows are firmly planted on the ground to prevent the laser from wobbling excessively. The gunner must practice raising his head just enough to clear the weapon with his NVGs and acquire a good sight picture by walking the laser onto the target and then aiming at center mass.
The objective is to not disrupt alignment of the laser with the target by jerking the trigger. If the borelight is not available a meter zero must be conducted. NOTE: When cutting the 3-centimeter square out of the target, some of the strike zone may be cut out. Care must be taken when annotating the impact of the rounds. When the weapon is close to being zeroed, some of the shots may be lost through the hole in the target. Confirm that equipment is tight prior to zeroing. To retain zero, remove the TPIAL and rail grabber as a whole assembly and place back onto the same notch as removed.
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Soldiers should receive in-depth instruction on the proper use and fit of night vision goggles to include characteristics and capabilities, maintenance, and mounting procedures. Extensive testing has proven that the average soldier does not properly use the night vision devices.grupoavigase.com/includes/324/4339-planes-hoy-en.php
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Unit leaders must be proficient in the train-the-trainer strategy. At night, soldiers should conduct a terrain walk to become more familiar and build confidence using the night vision goggles. The night vision devices have a degree field of view, which causes the average shooter to miss easy targets of opportunity. The soldier must be trained to aggressively scan his sector of fire for targets. The art of target detection at night is only as good as the soldier practices.
Regular blinking during scanning relieves some of the eyestrain that the soldier tends to have trying to spot distant targets. Regular blinking must be reinforced during training. After the soldier has mastered the art of scanning he will find that targets are more easily detected by acknowledging the flicker or the movement of a target. A soldier must be taught that what he can see downrange or on the battlefield through his NVGs, the enemy can also see.
The soldier must train to activate his laser at the base of the target and engage the target as soon as the target is detected. After the target has been engaged, the laser is deactivated. When a soldier uses proper IR discipline while scanning for targets, he must keep his weapon oriented within his sector of fire. When the target is detected the soldier orients his weapon around the base of the target, activates his laser, and walks the laser to the center mass of the target for engagement.
During the dry-fire exercise, soldiers acquire a sight picture on all exposed silhouette targets before conducting the field-fire scenario. This allows the soldier to focus on the targets at range. The procedures for practice qualification are:. The procedures for record qualification are:. It amplifies reflected light such as moonlight, starlight, and sky glow so that the viewed scene becomes clearly visible to the operator. Mounting brackets are provided for each type of weapon.